7. Eugen Fischer - The Father Of Nazi Eugenics, The German Concentration Camp And The "Biology" Behind The Aryan Race
Nazi doctors such as Josef Mengele may often get more publicity than Eugen Fischer, but this man was a key reason why the Adolf Hitler was able to implement a lot of the policies and revolutionary ideas that he did. Essentially, Fischer lay the foundations that made the "Final Solution" possible.
Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics between 1927 and 1942, Fischer established the theory of "rassenbiologie" - which helped to legitimise Nazi teaching of a "master" Aryan race and the so-called inferior "Untermenschen". Although he did not officially join the Nazi Party until 1940, Fischer had already illegally tested and then sterilised 600 children who had been descended from French-African soldiers, and he wrote two influential early works of the National Socialists: "Foundations of Human Hereditary Teaching and Racial Hygiene" and "Human Heredity Theory and Racial Hygiene".
His works provided scientific support for the Nuremberg laws (which discriminated against Jews in Germany), and he also developed the "Fischer-Saller scale" which determined racial origins. Known to experiment on Gypsies, African-Germans, and Jews, Fischer took blood and measured skulls in order to help "prove" his racist theories. So popular were Fischer's views with Hitler in fact that they were mentioned in "Mein Kampf".
Another of Fischer's brainchilds was the German concentration camp, which he first set-up in southern African in 1904 in order to keep locked up the so-called "inferior" races and keep them segregated from those who were racially "pure".
Incredibly, Fischer was able to retire in 1942 and didn't face a war-crimes trial, dying in peace in 1967.