One of the basic tenets of the DC universe is that messing with Batman is... unwise.
Despite having zero superpowers, instead solving all of his problems by throwing money at them until they go away, Batman has earned a spot on the greatest teams of superheroes that the DC universe has to offer, and has therefor thrown his squishy human body at things that one would be forgiven for thinking would be rather unfazed by his efforts. And the punchline is that he keeps winning.
Whether they be superpowered humans, monsters from beyond the stars, or Lovecraftian cosmic entities whose vast power and infinite lifespans should dwarf the Dark Knight's might like an elephant stepping on an ant, Batman has consistently come out on top of them all through his wits, determination, and again - lots and lots of money.
There have been many villains and even heroes that have tried to step to Gotham's greatest son, and none of them have walked away from the experience. Whether from the comics, games, movies or TV shows, these are the most powerful beings that have lost to Batman.