Sid Meier's Civilisation series defines the top level of careful planning and resource management. There are of course many games which try to do a similar thing, from straight up clones to other resource games such as Animal Crossing: New Horizons and Stardew Valley.
Civ, however, stands out from the others, partially due to the sheer length of time a single game can take. Not only do you have to plan out what you're doing in the next 10 turns, you need to be thinking at least 100 turns ahead as well as what all of the other players are going to be doing in that time to get the upper hand.
Balancing so many moving parts so that you don't fall behind, while also trying to make progress towards your goals, and never taking your eye off what victory type you're trying to go for makes Civilisation an incredibly complex and high-attention game. Yes, it's possible on low difficulties to just click the recommended options and forgo any real strategy, but on higher difficulties or against real players that stops being a viable option.
More than anything, Civilisation teaches gamers opportunity cost, as in 'If I do this, what am I missing out on doing?'. Not many games do that these days, though it is an incredibly important skill for any games with a semblance of resource management.